Apr 20, (a) KITAB-UL-HIND was written by AL-BIRUNI in Arabic language KITAB-UL- HIND is simple and lucid and a voluminous text divided into 80 chapters on. Sep 30, Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic. Kitab Tarikh Al-Hind and Aims of Writing it. Al-Biruni’s Kitab-ul-Hind is simple and lucid. It is divided. were incorporated in Mahmud’s Indian army; and Al- beruni—what Geography. Kitab-almanshurdt. marching to Hind or India proper we start from the.

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These kings have been pushed eastwards by the Ghaznavids until they had to take shelter in Kashmir.

Al-Beruni and the Kitab al-Hind

When the Punjab became a part of the Ghaznavid empire, contacts with the local population helped create an environment of mutual trust and understanding. He also gives information related to education and regional languages of the Indian society.

In discussing speculation kktab other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the Earth, Biruni acknowledged that he could neither prove nor disprove it, but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates.

One of the specific aspects of Hindu life that Al-Biruni studied was the Hindu calendar. Comparison Al-Biruni tried to explain the caste system by looking for parallels in other societies.

His scholarship on the topic exhibited great determination and focus, not to mention the excellence in his approach of the in-depth research he performed. Skip to main content. Their Empire in Afghanistan and Eastern Iran, For Sufis also there is believe that a human being has two souls — an eternal one, not exposed to change and alteration, and another, a human soul, which is liable to bring change.

By Susmita Prakash – November 08, Translated by Berjak, Rafik. He also visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. He does not conceal whatever he considers wrong and unpractical with them, but he duly appreciates their mental achievements … and whenever he hits upon something that is noble and grand both in science and in practical life, he never fails to lay it before his readers with warm-hearted words of approbation. Hindus considered Muslims violent and impure, and did not want to share anything with him.


In our Time — Al-Biruni”. Some recent researchers on Akbar, have tended to focus on the factors contributing to the rise of his policy of religious tolerance based on the principle of S ulh-i kulor ‘absolute peace’. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Pages with citations lacking titles CS1 Croatian-language sources hr CS1 French-language sources fr Articles with short description Articles with hCards Articles containing Persian-language text Articles containing Arabic-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July CS1 errors: Historians are able to make some matches while also concluding that certain areas seem beduni have disappeared and been replaced with different cities.

First, none of the aforementioned places are situated in present-day India. You are commenting using your WordPress.

Through The Eyes Of Travellers

Although he tried to stay away from political and military history, Biruni did indeed record important dates and noted actual sites of where significant battles occurred. He had, however, a most rigid regard for truth.

He was from Khwarazm — a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistanand northern Turkmenistan.

And find your snide over Indian superiority complex completely void of intellect. Apart from that, intellectual interactions were equally encouraged by different dynasties of India. Harbi al-Himyari Ja’far al-Sadiq. The Hindu Shahis were originally ruling Zabulistan, Kabulistan and Zamindawar when the first Ghaznavids conquered this area. The city contained a number of Indian Prisoners of war, skilled artisans and learned men who were brought over in the wake of Sultan Mahmud’s invasion of India.

It was only hundreds of years later in the West, that his books became read and referenced again, especially his book on India which became relevant to the British Empire’s activity in India from the 17th century. They are situated at around 8 km north-east of modern Taxila. Reading in Indian history. The self-absorption and consequent insularity of the local population constituted the third barrier.


However, their individual characters and manners differ as bodies with which they are united differ. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikisource. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan. In Ray, Himanshu Prabha. Alberuni reports that according to the Hindu philosophers, moksha is attainable by all the castes and by the human race.

Al-Biruni – Wikipedia

He extensively quotes from vast corpus of Sanskrit literature, like Patanjali, Gita, Puranas, Samkhya philosophy etc. It is then still difficult to know in which area these books could have been part of a living tradition.

There is kihab a subject which he left untouched. I am the only responsible for the contents of this paper. Over time, Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu scholars.

Geography and cartography in medieval Islam. Kashmiri scholars beguni helped him in gathering information. Biruni notes in the beginning of his book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture. It is often instructive, for people as well as races, to listen to what others have to say about them. Al-Biruni was aware of the deep differences between the Hindu and Islamic kltab of life.

He observes the belief of the educated class different from that of uneducated class. The result of his discovery of radius measurement was due to Biruni’s arduous research about the earth.

Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic although he wrote one of his masterpieces, the Kitab al-Tafhim apparently in both Persian and Arabic, showing his mastery over both languages. And not to mention Buddhist links. My book is nothing but a simple historic record of facts.

He expresses surprise that they should mix up science with popular religious beliefs. During his journey through India, military and political histories were not of Al-Biruni’s main focus.