Find the most up-to-date version of DOE TIC at Engineering DOE-TIC (). Uploaded by fogdart. manual .. This manual w a s prepared f o r t h e Department of Energy, Amarillo Area O f f i c e, Amarillo, Texas. DOE/TIC .. Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Amarillo Area Office Facilities and The AE will be given guidance as required by DOE.

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To be consistent with the primary fragment calculations, the maximum range of the soil ejecta should be used.

The distances that these soil fragments travel are called the maximum ejecta radii. Figure 1 – Maximum Ejecta Radii for Large Soil Chunks [2] Due to the nature of the equations used in BEM, the calculations will never result in a final fragment velocity and corresponding fragment range of zero. The hazards to personnel and public that are of the most concern are overpressure 1126 noise and fragmentation.

Stochastic Consideration of Cased Munitions for Casing Breakup and Airblast

The results from the Dos software for mitigation of primary fragments by tamped earth are compared to the results of the sandbag tests completed to date. The pre-defined list of soils include dry sand, wet sand, dry sandy clay, wet sandy clay, dry clay, and wet clay. The results from the BEM software are compared to the results obtained by applying the method by hand.

The theory used in BEM is discussed. Which suggests that for at least a portion of the burial roe the fragment is travelling through undisturbed soil.

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The results from these tests are compared to the results from BEM in Table 3. The soil slows down the fragments and, in some cases, may stop the fragments completely.

At the end of the test program, a full report of these results will be available. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. In order to protect the disposal personnel as well as the public, a withdrawal distance from the detonation is enforced. Some typical soil data from TM are shown in Table 2. The user is prompted to input the following values. There is no added benefit to burying the munition any deeper until reaching the depth at which a camouflet is formed.


However, it is not clear at this time for which portion of the burial depth this is true. Also, BEM will never result in a zero fragment velocity and fragment range. The input required for the software is detailed and two example problems are given. The question becomes how much soil does the fragment have to penetrate before escaping and what is the density of this soil?

Therefore, there is not full coupling between the explosive event and the sandbags whereas BEM assumes full coupling between the explosive tlc and the coe.

Also, where a crater is formed, the soil ejecta range is greater than the sandbag throw. The Structural Branch of the U. Sandbag throw is also measured. If deo energy release is relatively close to the surface, the cavity or void vents to the atmosphere and a crater is formed. The sandbag tests are run 1128 a standoff between the munition and the sandbag. The software will be outlined and an example presented. If X is greater than Y, a camouflet will be formed. In most cases the explosion causes a crater.

This software is described in the following sections. If the depth of burial is zero surface burst the fragment does not pass through any soil and the velocity of the fragment is the initial velocity. Due to calculation restraints division by the depth of burialif the depth of burial is zero the software assumes a depth of burial of 0. The buried explosion module BEM is a program designed to be used to calculate the residual velocity of fragments produced by a buried munition and the maximum ejecta radius of large soil chunks produced by the buried explosion.


Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing de burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, Jefferson Davis Highway, SuiteArlington Itc Soil from the crater is also thrown away from the center of the explosion becoming hazardous. Examination of the original soil ejecta data from AFWL-TR [5] shows that the average ratio between the maximum soil ejecta range and the range of one hazardous ejecta per square feet is 1.

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Otherwise, the fragment velocity as it exits the soil is calculated using equation 6. BEM does not include commands to view or print the results directly.

The munition is detonated using a perforating 1126 charge. USAESCH is involved in a test program to determine the thickness of sandbags necessary to defeat the primary fragments from a munition detonated on the ground surface.

However, if the munition is buried deeply enough a camouflet is formed instead and no soil is ejected from the site. Therefore, as a conservative estimate, all of the soil is assumed to have a density of one-half its undisturbed density for the purposes of calculating the drag coefficient on the fragment velocity.

For most unexploded ordnance the fragmentation range is much larger than the inhabited building distance IBD for overpressure. The theory used in the development of the BEM software will be discussed.

These radii are shown in Figure 5. Is a crater or a camouflet formed? Some commonly found munitions have been analyzed and the explosive weight, initial velocity and maximum fragment weights are shown in Table 1.