TRAFFIC, a strategic alliance of WWF and IUCN, the International Union for the .. Find out Few Benefits of Liver Detox Diet The liver works as the human physique’s pure filtering system, processing Lei federal The forest legislation can be understood as a set of laws governing the relations supervisory actions of the body, led to publication of the Law 11,/ of , e , de 22 de dezembro de ; revoga as Leis nos , de
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After developing the model conceptually and discussing the data used within the model, we demonstrate the model on aha public forest.
As ofCalha Norte contained 64 million hectares of protected areas. The software used in the analyses was GAMS Our assumption in the model is that the government is able to use an unspecified nondistortionary royalty instrument that does not influence harvest behavior to extract rents to the point that concessionaires just earn profits equivalent to those of operating legally on private lands. Baraloto for comments and suggestions. It is important to note that, because of data limitations, prices and costs are assumed to be constant throughout the analysis, leii though regional and local timber markets will be affected if large quantities 11824 legal timber become available.
The experience across other countries shows that this assumption is extremely optimistic as governments have generally captured only a small proportion of the total rents [ 2829 ].
Conceptual Background We bring together two lines of research in forestry and natural resource management to help us develop our planning model. Brazilian regulations establish that management decisions in each public forest will be guided by a management plan, which will be generated based on surveys in each public forest, including forest inventories, designated important sites for biological conservation and tourism, and the location and needs of traditional forest dwellers.
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This is important for planners because it can accommodate values of noncommercial land uses in a more meaningful way. Every three years the interval represented byBrazilian law requires independent audits of concessionaire performance within the concessions.
In mathematical terms, The subscript represents individual forest stands within a given public forest. Three maps of profitability of logging were generated for the three timber value classes considered: Table of Contents Alerts. We then use the NPVs in the different scenarios simulated to determine the marginal opportunity arising from decreasing the area logged due to increasing requirements for alternative land uses.
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Three competing land uses were considered: Macpherson contributed to this work though he is a graduate student at the University of Florida, while receiving support from the Working Forests in the Tropics Program through a National Science Foundation Integrated Graduate Education and Research Traineeship Grant no. Currently, annual profits from logging represent one of the primary variables considered by the Brazilian Government in decisionmaking to grant concessions in public forests.
In a given public forest, government seeks to maximize profits from logging. Alternatively, the planner can impose a minimum score to be achieved for a given land use by assigning different weights for each land use. Zoning decisions in public forests, assuming that logging is the only revenue-generating activity, will create opportunity costs in terms of lost NPV. The same explanation given for the NPV curves in the last section is valid in explaining why MOCs for community use are larger than MOCs for biodiversity conservation since areas with potential for community use in the case of FSF are located near to roads and rivers and have higher profitability for logging.
Each stand is also assumed to have a potential coefficient for each land dd alternative. While the results are useful for planning in FSF, our primary intention is to demonstrate the capability of the model to provide useful information to forest planners. NPV decreased with an increase in the number of stands dedicated to communities.
Areas forbidden for logging were assigned for harvesting in the model. Same effect is valid for biodiversity conservation. The objective of this paper is to develop an analytical tool to support this decisionmaking.
Each stand within a public forest is assumed to have an exclusive land use—a strong assumption given that many areas might have overlapping uses. Equation 1 is then modified and the objective of the program becomes maximizing profits from concessions constrained by a minimum number of stands—or a minimum score—assigned to alternative land uses.
Lastly, as the Brazilian concession experience expands, more accurate estimates of concession establishment costs, transaction costs generated by the licensing of forest management plans, and audit costs will be available for the better accuracy of the model.
The usefulness for direct beneficiaries and for lri society of stands set aside for land uses as community use and biodiversity conservation could be enhanced by assessing spatial zoning configurations which take into account the degree leii connectivity among stands with the same land use alternative, pei could be achieved by adding the appropriate constraints.
For the largest problem that includes all land uses, the model solves for 13, continuous variables and binary variableswith 14, constraints. There are commercial species which, for simplification, we categorize into timber value classes, denoted by. Further research could also incorporate different spatial configurations and sizes for stands destined for concessions to examine the costs and benefits of allocating concessions to firms of different sizes.
However, we do permit the planner to specify the minimum number of stands allocated to each land use within the forest. In the two multiple use scenarios investigated, the potential for logging was considered equal to 1 for any stand in which the estimate of logging profitability was greater than zero, and zero otherwise.